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image copyright Steve Clarke

Overhang: The distance past the spindle center-pin the stylus will be when the tonearm is rotated over the spindle.

Pivot to Spindle Distance: A straight line distance from the spindle axis to the tonearm's axis of horizontal rotation.

Horizontal Pivot: An axis of rotation allowing Horizontal swing of the tonearm.

Vertical Pivot: An axis of rotation allowing Vertical swing of the tonearm.

Null Points:

Above scan: This is the protractor that comes with the HFNRR test record.  I like both the test record and the protractor.  Not to scale, so don't try to print and use.  You'll have to buy this one folks.

The null points as pictured in the top 3d illustration and on the above picture of the HFNRR protractor are two points of theoretical perfect tangency between the stylus and the record groove. The exact position of the null points are designed to give the tonearm/cartridge a calculated minimal tracking error when tracking outside and between these two points.



3d geometry created in Rhino and then rendered with Moray-POVray.