Analog Classifieds

User Manuals

Thorens Dept.

Garrard Gallery

Thorens Gallery

Systems Gallery

Lenco Gallery


Articles and Reviews

Alignment FAQ

Interesting Vinyl

R2R Tape Gallery

Plinth Builder's Gallery

Idler Drive

Cartridge Gallery


What's Under Your Turntable

DIY Dept

Reading List



Misc. Photo


An Illustrated Definition of Terms

Tonearm Alignment for pivot tone arms

overhang_web.jpg (97898 bytes) Overhang, Pivot to Spindle Distance, Null Points., Tonearm Pivots; Horizontal and Vertical

SRAvta_web.jpg (68512 bytes) Effective Length, Vertical Tracking Angle (VTA) Stylus Rake Angle (SRA)

Azimuth ; the good and the bad

vta_flr_set.jpg (32383 bytes) Adjusting VTA. on a Thorens TP16

BPS3d_styl.jpg (22192 bytes) Cartridge / Arm matching, Effective Mass, Resonant Frequency, VTF, Compliance

2pt_1.GIF (90061 bytes) Adjusting Overhang with a 2 point protractor

DSC_4504.JPG (104263 bytes)Adjusting Overhang with a TAD Arc protractor

How to set up a three spring suspended TT really well, by Tim Bailey M30sprg.jpg (19050 bytes)

  Additional Suspension Notes, by Steve Clarke


linen magnifier.jpg (214203 bytes)

Other terms not illustrated on this page ......  and their definitions:

vinyl microscopy

H1000735-Record_stylus_playing_record2C_SEM-SPL.jpg (71589 bytes) H1000086-SEM_diamond_stylus_travelling_through_LP_grooves-SPL.jpg (47978 bytes)


.......is related to the ability of the stylus to follow the groove path on the record.  Poor alignment or a worn stylus will hinder tracking. but sometimes a particular record will have a passage of extreme amplitude that will prove difficult for some cartridges/stylii to accurately track.  Then the result is that the stylus does not remain centered and in complete contact with the groove walls...but rather is violently repelled by the grooves from being in constant contact.


Further notes on measure of turntable performance: measures.htm


R7_2_torture.jpg (195393 bytes) 

At The Analog Dept we test tonearm tracking ability under the most demanding conditions.


Related spreadsheets (MS Excel) 

Brian Kearn's Arm Data Calculator
Freek's Resonant Frequency Calculator